affix - An affix can be added to the root of a word to change its meaning. A prefix is a group of letters, or morph, that is added to a root word at the beginning, while a suffix is added at the end.
animations - Animation is where a series of still images are linked together as part of a timed sequence. This makes the image appear to move. Cartoon movies, tv shows, videos are animations.
antonyms - a pair of words opposite in meaning to another ( bad and good ).
categorize- To arrange, sort or organize details from a text into groups with similar traits – Otto, Friedrich, Mike, Ivy and Kenny, (Categorize), and to name or label that group – Characters in ECHO who Owned the Harmoica (Classify).
chronology- Chronological order is a pattern of organization where information in a passage or text is structured according to the time, telling a story from beginning to end straight through.
Nonfiction passages that are organized chronologically often contain dates.
compound sentences - A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses (or complete sentences) connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction.
Simple sentence - I like to read + Simple sentence I love to be outside in the garden = I love to read and I love to be outside in the garden.
Concrete words - Concrete words are nouns; they describe things you experience through your senses: cookies, roses, dogs, mist, a shout.
Abstract words name qualities: beauty, justice, truth. Concrete words help us describe things; abstract words help us classify them. Concrete words are specific.
Coordinating conjunctions - Coordinating conjunctions are what come to most people’s minds when they hear the word “conjunction,” and they do exactly what their name implies – they make things go together. They can join together
words, phrases and independent clauses. If you’ve ever heard the classic Schoolhouse Rock song, “Conjunction Junction,” then you are already somewhat familiar with coordinating conjunctions.
The English language has seven coordinating conjunctions, and they’re easy to remember if you can just remember FANBOYS:
- For - Explains reason or purpose (just like “because”)
I go to the park every Sunday, for I love to watch the ducks on the lake.
- And - Adds one thing to another
I go to the park every Sunday to watch the ducks on the lake and the shirtless men playing soccer.
- Nor - Used to present an alternative negative idea to an already stated negative idea
I don’t go for the fresh air nor really for the ducks. Honestly, I just like the soccer.
- But - Shows contrast
The soccer in the park is entertaining in the winter, but it’s better in the heat of summer.
- Or - Presents an alternative or a choice
The men play on teams: shirts or skins.
- Yet - Introduces a contrasting idea that follows the preceding idea logically (similar to “but”)
I always take a book to read, yet I never seem to turn a single page.
- So - Indicates effect, result or consequence
I’ve started dating one of the soccer players, so now I have an excuse to watch the game each week.
Read more at http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/conjunctions/coordinating-conjunctions.html#0BQ37KrZDTya7ohq.99
Drama a play for theater, radio, or television.
"an urban drama about growing up in New York"
play, show, piece, theatrical work, dramatization
"a television drama"
an exciting, emotional, or unexpected series of events or set of circumstances.
"a lost child at the zoo drama"
incident, scene, spectacle, crisis;
Firsthand account - Diaries, autobiographies, and letters are considered to be firsthand accounts; coming right from the original source <firsthand information>
Formatting - The titles of major works are set apart from regular text. When you are handwriting, you underline the title of the major work. If you are typing, you put the title in italics.
. Major works are books, long poems, magazines, newspapers, journals, movies, plays, television shows, ballets, operas, paintings, albums, and names of ships.
Fragments - Recognize a fragment when you see one.
A fragment occurs whenever you do these three things:
- You begin a group of words with a capital letter.
- You conclude this group of words with an end mark—either a period [ . ], question mark [ ? ], or exclamation point [ ! ].
- You neglect to insert a main clause somewhere between the capital letter at the beginning and the end mark concluding the word group.
grammatical elements, but you must have the main clause as the base of the sentence.
Idioms – Idioms are sayings that have a figurative reading strategy using meaning that is different from its literal, or real, meaning.
Example: The test was a piece of cake. The idiom in the example is piece of cake. The figurative meaning is something that is easy.
Inference – An inference is when we combine evidence with what we know to come to a conclusion. When readers infer, they use their prior knowledge and textual clues to draw conclusions and form unique interpretations of text.
Interactive elements - Computers Of or relating to a program that responds to user activity. For Example: https://www.learner.org/interactives/story/cinderella.html
Metaphors - A metaphor is a word or phrase that is used to make a comparison between two people, things, animals, or places.
They can be very helpful for kids who are learning the meaning of specific words because they provide a more visual description of the word or thought.
Examples of metaphors. Look for the comparison being made:
The snow is a white blanket.
The hospital was a refrigerator.
The classroom was a zoo.
America is a melting pot.
Her lovely voice was music to his ears.
Life is a roller coaster.
The alligator’s teeth are white daggers.
Their home was a prison.
The slide on the playground was a hot stove.
His heart is a cold iron.
She is a peacock.
He is a shining star.
Time is money.
My teacher is a dragon.
Tom’s eyes were ice.
The detective’s face was wood as he listened to her story.
She feels that life is a fashion show.
The world is a stage.
Meter – “You probably know that, in music, the rhythm of a song is the “beat,” often created by instruments such as drums, bass guitars, etc. In fact, in popular music the drummer and bass guitarist in a band are often referred to as the “rhythm section” because they establish the rhythm for the rest of the musicians to follow.
Unlike a song, poems don’t have a rhythm section. There is no drummer or conductor establishing the rhythm. Instead, the rhythm is set by the “stresses” or “accents” in the words themselves. Allow me to explain.
In most words that have more than one syllable, one of the syllables is pronounced more strongly than the others. We say that this syllable is “stressed” or “accented.” For example, the word “apple” has two syllables – ap-ple – and the first syllable is pronounced more strongly than the second. That’s why the word is pronounced “AP-pull” and not “ap-PULL.”
If a word has just a single syllable, that syllable might be stressed, or it might not be. Generally, short words like “a” and “I” and “the” are not stressed. Nouns and verbs (things and action words), on the other hand are often stressed, even when they are just one syllable long. So, for example, words like “cat” and “jump” are stressed syllables.” http://www.poetry4kids.com/blog/news/rhythm-in-poetry-the-basics/
Mythology (from the Greek 'mythos' for story-of-the-people, and 'logos' for word or speech, the spoken story of a people) is the study and interpretation of often sacred tales or fables of a culture known as 'myths' or the collection of such stories which usually deal with the human condition, good and evil, human origins, life and death, the afterlife, and the gods. Myths express the beliefs and values about these subjects held by a certain culture.
Myths tell the stories of ancestors and the origin of humans and the world, the gods, supernatural beings (satyrs, nymphs, mermaids) and heroes with super-human, usually god-given, powers (as in the case of Heracles or Perseus of the Greeks). Myths also describe origins or nuances of long-held customs or explain natural events such as the sunrise and sunset, the full moon or thunder and lightning storms
Narration - the act or process of telling a story or describing what happens;
- The novel uses first-person narration. The main character is telling the story. Second –Person are commands. Third person means the storyteller, the author, tells the story for all the characters without being in it.
- Words that are heard as part of a movie, television show, etc., and that describe what is being seen. They got a famous actor to do the narration for the documentary.
Paraphrase - We recounted the storyline, the main characters, the events, and important points using our own words. This is paraphrasing - using your own words to express someone else's message or ideas.
In a paraphrase, the ideas and meaning of the original source must be maintained; the main ideas need to come through, but the wording has to be your own.
How is paraphrasing different from summarizing? A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat bigger segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s).
Pose: to ask a question
relative adverbs- https://www.ixl.com/ela/grade-4/use-relative-adverbs or http://mhschool.com/lead_21/grade4/ccslh_g4_lg_6_1f_l5.html
Prepositional phrases -
Progressive verb tenses: PROGRESSIVE VERB TENSES
A verb indicates the time of an action, event or condition by changing its form.
The progressive verb tense uses was, am or will. For example: I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking. Was/Am/Will be makes the verb 'to walk' progressive.
Here's a quick example of what the progressive tense might look like compared to other verb tenses:
Progressive verb tenses describe ongoing actions in the present, past or future.
Prose - written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure. Not poetry with its rhythm or meter."a short story in prose"
Proverbs - (from Latin: proverbium) may also be known as a maxim or adage; Proverbs and adages are short sayings that state a truth or give simple advice.
Below are common proverbs and adages dealing with animals. The animal has been left out or the proverb or adage.
Word Bank: flies chickens worm cats leopard fish dogs bird sow beetles horse mice
1. You can’t make a silk purse out of a ______________________ ’s ear.
2. The early bird catches the ______________________ .
3. When the cat’s away the ______________________ will play.
4. There are plenty of ______________________ in the sea.
5. You can catch more ______________________ with honey than you can with vinegar.
6. Don’t count your ______________________ before they are hatched.
7. Let sleeping ______________________ lie.
8. You can lead a ______________________ to water but you can’t make it drink.
9. A ______________________ can’t change its spots.
10. A ______________________ in the hand is worth two
Quotations - There are rules for using quotation marks. “Quotation marks contain someone’s exact words.”
1. Begin quotations with a capital letter.
2. If the quote comes before the person who spoke and tells something, place a comma after the quote, before the closing quotation mark.
Example: "The world is a very big place with seven continents and four oceans," the teacher told the class.
3. If the quote comes after the person who spoke and tells something, place the comma after the person who spoke, before the opening quotation mark.
Example: Chad explained, "We live on the continent of North America."
Root - Many English words are formed by taking basic words and adding combinations of prefixes and suffixes to them. A basic word to which affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are added is called a root word because it forms the basis of a new word. The root word is also a word in its own right. For example, the word lovely consists of the word love and the suffix -ly. In contrast, a root is the basis of a new word, but it does not typically form a stand-alone word on its own. For example, the word reject is made up of the prefix re- and the Latin root ject, which is not a stand-alone word.
Check out this page to see the roots and affixes as well as lists of common Greek and Latin roots: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/root-words-roots-and-affixes
Run-ons - (sometimes called a "fused sentence") has at least two parts, either one of which can stand by itself (in other words, two independent clauses), but the two parts have been smooshed together instead of being properly connected.
Second hand account - A secondhand account of an event or topic is based on an author's research, rather than personal experience. The author uses pronouns such as he, she, and they to describe the event or topic.
Sensory details - Sensory details include sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste. Sensory details engage the reader's interest, and should be incorporated to add more depth to your writing. Imagery is the sight sense.
Similes- a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.g., as brave as a lion, crazy like a fox )
Stage directions - an instruction in the text of a play, especially one indicating the movement, position, or tone of an actor, or the sound effects and lighting.
Synonyms - a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the language, as happy, joyful, elated. A dictionary of synonyms and antonyms (or opposites), such as Thesaurus.com, is called a thesaurus.
Text features – Text features help you find information in a book. They also help you understand what you are reading. a Table of contents tells you what selections or chapters are inside a book.
A caption gives information about a picture.
Chapter titles and subheadings tell what you will read next.
A glossary gives the meaning of words, and an index helps you find information.
Key words and sidebars are examples of other text features
Text structures -
Description This type of text structure features a detailed description of something to give the reader a mental picture.
EXAMPLE: A book may tell all about whales or describe what the geography is like in a particular region.
Cause and Effect This structure presents the causal relationship between an specific event, idea, or concept and the events, ideas, or concept that follow.
EXAMPLE: Weather patterns could be described that explain why a big snowstorm occurred.
Comparison/Contrast This type of text examines the similarities and differences between two or more people, events, concepts, ideas, etc.
EXAMPLE: A book about ancient Greece may explain how the Spartan women were different from the Athenian women.
Order/Sequence This text structure gives readers a chronological of events or a list of steps in a procedure.
EXAMPLE: A book about the American revolution might list the events leading to the war. In another book, steps involved in harvesting blue crabs might be told.
Problem-Solution This type of structure sets up a problem or problems, explains the solution,
and then discusses the effects of the solution.
Theme - the subject of a talk, a piece of writing, a person's thoughts, or an exhibition; a topic.
"The theme of the program was love and the kids sang love songs from the sixties!"
synonyms: subject, topic, subject matter, matter, thesis, argument, text, burden,concern, thrust, message; More
Timeline - Timeline allows students to create a graphical representation of an event or process by displaying items sequentially along a line.
Transitional words - are phrases or words used to connect one idea to the next
transitions are used by the author to help the reader progress from one significant idea to the next
transitions also show the relationship within a paragraph (or within a sentence) between the main idea and the support the author gives for those ideas
Common Transition chains to use together - one to start each section or paragraph
first... second... third...
generally... furthermore... finally
in the first place... also... lastly
in the first place... pursuing this further... finally
to be sure... additionally... lastly
in the first place... just in the same way... finally
basically... similarly... as well
More at: http://larae.net/write/transition.html
Verse - A division of a metrical composition, such as a stanza of a poem or hymn.